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Beautifully, indeed gracefully, executed! With just one cavil: I believe you erred in citing the school :

“....now its leading university, now its leading university, SciencesPo, to improve the education of civil servants. Few countries would respond to military defeat by creating a school.SciencesPo, to improve the education of civil servants. Few countries would respond to military defeat by creating a school.”

I believe you are referring to the Ecole National d’Administration (ENA) whose graduates (enarques!) include most presidents of France .... I taught their “stage intensif du printemps” back in the 1980s....one of my students became French anbassador to UN, US, then dep fgn minister!

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Hi David,

Thank you so much for the lovely feedback - glad you enjoyed it!

It’s an excellent point about ENA, which has indeed graduated so many future leaders. Although I believe ENA was founded after WW2 while SciencesPo (back then the École libre des sciences politiques) after the Franco Prussian war. Both with similar objectives though - extraordinary military challenges compelling a rethink of the training of civil servants!

Quite an impressive cohort you have influenced!

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